A research group at Oxford University has discovered that affordable and generally accessible medication called dexamethasone can be used in a serious type of COVID-19. This treatment was appeared to decrease the death rate by around 33%, and for patients requiring just oxygen, the death rate was decreased by around one fifth, according to preliminary discoveries imparted to WHO.
The outcomes originated from recoveries (randomized assessment of COVID-19 treatment), the world's largest clinical trial to date for COVID-19 medications and is called Recovery - Randomized Evaluation of Covid-19 Therapy. . The research, run by Oxford and the NHS, is trying a scope of medications on COVID-19 patients in 176 emergency clinics across Britain,2104 patients were on dexamethasone and dose was 6mg dexamethasone (oral or i.v.) daily for ten days and 4321 who were most certainly not.
Fundamental outcomes indicated that dexamethasone brought down the death rate from 40% to 28% for patients on ventilators, and from 25% to 20% for those requiring oxygen more than 28 days. There was no benefit among those patients who did not require respiratory support. (Link)
Remember: The result was just found in COVID-19 serious patients and was not seen in patients with milder infection.
“This is the only drug so far that has been shown to reduce mortality — and it reduces it significantly. It’s a major breakthrough,” Peter Horby, Professor of Emerging Infectious Diseases and Global Health and Chair of the UK New and Emerging Respiratory Virus Threats Advisory Group, who led the study said.(Link)
“This is the first treatment to be shown to reduce mortality in patients with COVID-19 requiring oxygen or ventilator support,” said Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General. (WHO)
The UK’s National Health Service has already granted approval to the drug. “From today the standard treatment for COVID-19 will include dexamethasone, helping save thousands of lives while we deal with this terrible virus,” UK Health Secretary Matt Hancock said in a statement.
Phases in COVID 19 Infection:
There are two different stages in coronavirus disease. The vast majority just experience the first one, where the infection attacks the body and the immunity mounts a viable reaction.
However, for a minority, the disease changes about seven days after infection. At this stage body's own immune system starts to overreact and cause inflammation especially in the lungs.
Mechanism of Dexamethasone in COVID 19:
COVID-19 causes rapid accumulation of cytokines especially IL-6 in the lungs. IL-6 is responsible for inflammation which ultimately causes the production and accumulation of fluids in the lungs. And dexamethasone being a steroid reduces inflammation and suppress immune activation of immune agents, the drug could reduce the secretion of cytokines into the lungs and thus relieving the symptoms of the lung effects. Important news here is that dexamethasone is quite cheaper and widely available than the anti IL-6-receptor antibody.
Malarial drug Hydroxychloroquine For COVID19:
The World Health Organization said on Wednesday that malarial drug hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19 patients had been stopped after new information and studies indicated no advantage.
According to WHO “Studies showed that hydroxychloroquine does not result in the reduction of mortality of hospitalised COVID-19 patients,”.
Antiviral " Remdesivir " against COVID 19:
Remdesivir has been reduced the duration of symptoms by about four days. In a trial of around 1,000 patients, the individuals who got it had a marginally lower danger of dying and evidence of lower respiratory tract infection (Study).
Remdesivir from US pharma company Gilead Sciences on 1st June 2020 has announced the result from the Phase 3 trial in hospitalized patients with moderate COVID-19 pneumonia. This open-label study evaluated 5-day and 10-day courses of the remdesivir plus standard of care, versus standard of care alone. The study explained that patients in the 5-day remdesivir treatment group were 65 percent more likely to have clinical improvement at Day 11 compared with those in the standard of care group (OR 1.65 [95% CI 1.09-2.48]; p=0.017). No new safety signals were identified with remdesivir across either treatment group. But it was not statistically significant (OR 1.31 [95% CI 0.88-1.95]; p=0.18).Well company is planning to submit the data for publication in a journal in the coming weeks. (Link)